Bilimsel yayın yazımında kullanılan en yaygın cümle kalıpları

bilimsel yayın yazımı bilimsel makale yazımı

Bilimsel yayın yazımı (bilimsel makale, tez, kitap vs) bulgular arası bağlantı kurma, dilbilgisi, yorumlama yetisi gibi çok yönlü olarak ele alınması gereken süreçtir. Bu sürece katkısı olması amacı ile hazırladığım bu sayfa bilimsel yayınlarınızı hazırlamanızda yardımcı olacaktır.

İlgili bölümler altındaki yazmak istediğiniz ifade için sekmeleri açarak cümle kalıplarını görebilirsiniz. Yazma amacınıza uygun kombinasyonlar seçerek bilimsel yayınıza ekleyebilirsiniz.

Giriş Bölümü

bilimsel yayın yazımı giriş bölümü

Bilimsel makalelerde giriş bölümü (ya da tezlerde) çalışmanızın literatürdeki yerini göstermek içindir. Literatürde yapılan çalışmalar ve bulguları, eksikleri verilip çalışmanızın onlara göre farkı sunulur.

Aşağıdaki sekmelerden giriş bölümünüzün ilgili kısmı için sekmeyi açarak cümle kalıplarını görebilirsiniz.

A key aspect of X is …
X is of interest because …
X is a classic problem in …
A primary concern of X is …
X is a dominant feature of …
X is a fundamental property of …
The concepts of X and Y are central to …
X is at the heart of our understanding of …
Investigating X is a continuing concern within …
X is a major area of interest within the field of …
X has been studied by many researchers using …
X has been an object of research since the 1960s.
X has been the subject of many classic studies in …
X has been instrumental in our understanding of …
The theory of X provides a useful account of how …
X has been an important concept in the study of the …
Central to the entire discipline of X is the concept of …
X is an increasingly important area in applied linguistics.
X has been the subject of much systematic investigation.
The issue of X has received considerable critical attention.
Understanding the complexity of an X is vitally important if …
X has long been a question of great interest in a wide range of fields.
One of the most significant current discussions in legal and moral philosophy is …
The discovery of X in 1986 triggered a huge amount of innovative scientific inquiry.
The role of X in Y has received increased attention across a number of disciplines in recent years.

X is fundamental to …
X has a pivotal role in …
X is an important aspect of …
X is frequently prescribed for …
X is fast becoming a key instrument in …
X plays a vital role in the metabolism of …
X is the most widely distributed species of …
X plays a critical role in the maintenance of …
Xs have emerged as powerful platforms for …
X is essential for a wide range of technologies.
X can play an important role in addressing the issue of …
Xs are the most potent anti-inflammatory agents known.
There is evidence that X plays a crucial role in regulating …
X is a common condition which has considerable impact on …
In the new global economy, X has become a central issue for …
Determining the impacts of X on Y is important for the future of …
Evidence suggests that X is among the most important factors for …
X is important for a wide range of scientific and industrial processes.
Xs are one of the most widely used groups of antibacterial agents and …
There is a growing body of literature that recognises the importance of …
X is an important component in the climate system, and plays a key role in Y.
Xs were the most serious and widespread popular disturbances to occur in …
In the history of development economics, X has been thought of as a key factor in …

Recently, there has been renewed interest in …
Traditionally, Xs have subscribed to the belief that …
One of the most important events of the 1970s was …
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in …
Recent developments in X have heightened the need for …
The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards …
Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in …
Over the past century, there has been a dramatic increase in …
Recent trends in X have led to a proliferation of studies that …
X proved an important literary genre in the early Y community.
The past decade has seen the rapid development of X in many …
Recently, a considerable literature has grown up around the theme of …
Recent developments in the field of X have led to a renewed interest in …
Since it was reported in 2009, X has been attracting considerable interest.
The past thirty years have seen increasingly rapid advances in the field of …
The changes experienced by X over the past decade remain unprecedented.
In the last few decades, there has been a surge of interest in the effects of …
The study of X, which includes Y, has grown significantly since the early 1980s.
For more than a century, scientists have been interested in the existence of …
In light of recent events in X, it is becoming extremely difficult to ignore the existence of …

X is a leading cause of …
One of the main obstacles …
One of the greatest challenges …
A key issue is the safe disposal of …
The main disadvantage of X is that …
X is associated with increased risk of …
X is a common disorder characterised by …
It is now well established that X can impair …
X is a common, chronic disease of childhood.
X has led to the decline in the population of …
X is a growing public health concern worldwide.
The main challenge faced by many researchers is the …
X is one of the most frequently stated problems with …
Lack of X has existed as a health problem for many years.
X is a major public health problem, and the main cause of …
Xs are one of the most rapidly declining groups of insects in …
X is the leading cause of death in western-industrialised countries.
Despite its long clinical success, X has a number of problems in use.
Exposure to X has been shown to be related to adverse effects in …
There is increasing concern that some Xs are being disadvantaged …
There is an urgent need to address the safety problems caused by …
Questions have been raised about the safety of the prolonged use of …
The prevalence of X is increasing at an alarming rate in all age groups.
Despite its safety and efficacy, X suffers from several major drawbacks:
Along with this growth in X, however, there is increasing concern over …
X is increasingly recognised as a serious, worldwide public health concern.
X and its consequences are an important, but understudied, cause for concern.

(However,)
X may cause …
X is limited by …
X suffers from …
X is too expensive to be used for …
X has accentuated the problem of …
the performance of X is limited by …
X could be a contributing factor to …
the synthesis of X remains a major challenge.
X can be extremely harmful to human beings.
research has consistently shown that X lacks …
a major problem with this kind of application is …
the determination of X is technically challenging.
current methods of X have proven to be unreliable.
these rapid changes are having a serious effect on …
X can be adversely affected under certain conditions.
accounting for these varying experiences is problematic .
observations have indicated a serious decline in the population of …

Recent evidence suggests that …
Previous studies have reported …
Recent studies have shown that …
Several studies have documented …
Studies of X show the importance of …
Several attempts have been made to …
Previous research has established that …
Data from several studies suggest that …
Recent work by historians has established that …
Previous research comparing X and Y has found …
Existing research recognises the critical role played by …
It is now well established from a variety of studies, that …
Recently investigators have examined the effects of X on Y.
Surveys such as that conducted by Smith (1988) have shown that …
Factors found to be influencing X have been explored in several studies.
A number of cross-sectional studies suggest an association between X and Y…
Studies over the past two decades have provided important information on …
A considerable amount of literature has been published on X. These studies …
In the past two decades, a number of researchers have sought to determine …
In previous studies of X, different variables have been found to be related to …
The first serious discussions and analyses of X emerged during the 1970s with …
There have been a number of longitudinal studies involving X that have reported …
Xs were reported in the first studies of Y (e.g., Smith, 1977; Smith and Patel, 1977).
What we know about X is largely based upon empirical studies that investigate how …
Smith (1984: 217) shows how, in the past, research into X was mainly concerned with …
Results from earlier studies demonstrate a strong and consistent association between …
There are a large number of published studies (e.g., Smith, 2001; Jones, 2005) that describe the link
between …

A number of
studies/researchers
have found …
have reported …
have identified …
have shown that …
have attempted to …
have demonstrated that …
have investigated whether …
have found an association between …
have explored risk factors associated with …
It has been
noted that …
argued that …
shown that …
reported that …
assumed that …
suggested that …
established that …
demonstrated that …
conclusively shown that …

What
we know about X / is known about X
comes from / is (largely) based on / is (largely) derived from
accounts by …
observations of …
laboratory studies …
historical data from …
epidemiological studies …
brief biographical details …
cross-sectional studies of …
studies of people living in …
case studies undertaken in …
contemporary textual sources …
small-scale experiments with …
research using laboratory animals …
research undertaken in major cities …
a few primary sources from the time …
studies conducted in populations of X …
observations using various animal models …

A much debated question is whether …
The precise effect of X is a much-debated topic.
One major issue in early X research concerned …
To date there has been little agreement on what …
The issue has grown in importance in light of recent …
There has been disagreement on the criteria for defining X
In the literature on X, the relative importance of Y is debated.
One observer has already drawn attention to the paradox in …
Questions have been raised about the use of animal subjects in …
In many Xs, a debate is taking place between Ys and Zs concerning …
Debate continues about the best strategies for the management of …
There has been much division between historians on the subject of …
This concept has recently been challenged by X studies demonstrating …
The debate about X has gained fresh prominence with many arguing that …
More recently, literature has emerged that offers contradictory findings about …
Scholars have long debated the impact of X on the creation and diffusion of …
One of the most significant current discussions in legal and moral philosophy is …
The relationship between X and Y has attracted conflicting interpretations from …
One major theoretical issue that has dominated the field for many years concerns …
The controversy about scientific evidence for X has raged unabated for over a century.
The issue of X has been a controversial and much disputed subject within the field of …
Several divergent accounts of X have been proposed, creating numerous controversies.
The causes of X have been the subject of intense debate within the scientific community.
In the literature on X, the relative importance of Y has been subject to considerable discussion.

There is little published data on …
No previous study has investigated X .
The use of X has not been investigated.
There is very little published research on …
There has been no detailed investigation of …
There has been little quantitative analysis of …
Data about the efficacy and safety of X are limited.
Up to now, far too little attention has been paid to …
A search of the literature revealed few studies which …
The impact of X on Y is understudied, particularly for …
So far, however, there has been little discussion about …
In addition, no research has been found that surveyed …
Surprisingly, the effects of X have not been closely examined.
Surprisingly, X is seldom studied and it is unclear to what extent …
In contrast to X, there is much less information about effects of …
X has hitherto received scant attention by scholars of the Y period.
A systematic understanding of how X contributes to Y is still lacking.
Despite the importance of X, there remains a paucity of evidence on …
There have been no controlled studies which compare differences in …
The issue of X has attracted very little attention from the scholarly community.
To date, the problem of X has received scant attention in the research literature.
To date, no large-scale studies have been performed to investigate the prevalence of ….
Although studies have recognised X, research has yet to systematically investigate the effect of …

To date / Surprisingly,
(X) has (still) not (yet) been
closely
formally
empirically
extensively
scientifically
systematically
comprehensively
studied. / examined. / investigated.

There is a
current / relative / general / notable / surprising
paucity
of studies / of well-controlled studies
investigating …
describing how …
that seek to identify predictors of
of empirical research / of high-quality research
in the field of …
focusing specifically on …
on the current prevalence of …
of scientific literature / of evidence-based literature
specifically relating to …
on the experiences of …
describing the impact of …
(Very) few studies have / Few (published) studies have
explored …
focused on …
controlled for …
examined how …
compared trends in …
attempted to define …
examined the role of …
measured X in humans.
quantified the levels of …
assessed the implications of …
evaluated the effects of X on …
examined the consequences of …
actually examined the impact of …
have systematically investigated …
provided quantitative evidence of …
systematically evaluated the use of …
attempted to quantify the impact of …
adequately tested the effectiveness of …
addressed the long term psychological effects of …
been large enough to provide reliable estimates of …
been conducted to determine the possible effects of …
Although / While / Whilst
some research has been / carried out on X,
no single study exists which …
no studies have been found which …
no controlled studies have been reported.
there is very little scientific understanding of …
only two studies have attempted to investigate …
the mechanism by which … has not been established.
there have been few empirical investigations into …
So far, / To date, / Up to now,
there
have been no attempts to examine …
has been very little research directly investigating X.
have been very few empirically published accounts of X.
very little
research has been carried out on …
has been published on the subject of …
attention has been paid to the role of X.
few
studies have examined the association between …
studies have investigated X in any systematic way …
randomised clinical trials have specifically investigated X in …

Previous studies of X have not dealt with …
Researchers have not treated X in much detail.
Such expositions are unsatisfactory because they …
Such approaches, however, have failed to address …
Most studies in the field of X have only focused on …
Previous published studies are limited to local surveys.
Half of the studies evaluated failed to specify whether …
The research to date has tended to focus on X rather than Y.
Previously published studies on the effect of X are not consistent.
Smith’s analysis does not take account of …, nor does she examine …
The existing accounts fail to resolve the contradiction between X and Y.
Most studies of X have only been carried out in a small number of areas.
However, much of the research up to now has been descriptive in nature …
The generalisability of much published research on this issue is problematic.
Research on the subject has been mostly restricted to limited comparisons of …
However, few writers have been able to draw on any systematic research into …
Short-term studies such as these do not necessarily show subtle changes over time …
Although extensive research has been carried out on X, no single study exists which …
However, these results were based upon data from over 30 years ago and it is unclear if …
The experimental data are rather controversial, and there is no general agreement about …
However, all the previous X research was cross-sectional in design. Therefore, it is unclear if …
Although there are many reports in the literature on the outcome of X, most are restricted to …
Some evidence suggests that …, although further work using X is required to confirm this finding.

The existing literature on X / Most of the work carried out on X
fails to …
suffers from …
lacks clarity regarding …
ignores the possibility that …
has not distinguished between x and y in a systematic fashion.
No previous study has
controlled for …
been large enough to …
completely eliminated …
distinguished between …
provided information on …
addressed the question of …
assessed the occurrence of …
used a dynamic measure of …
given sufficient consideration to …
employed time-series techniques for …
utilised verbal reports to examine the problem of …
used a method for analysing multiple factors related to …
Previous studies (of X) / Most of these studies
have suffered from
small sample sizes.
low response rates.
multiple design flaws.
an overemphasis on …
inconsistent definitions.
poorly developed theory.
inadequate sample sizes.
methodological limitations.
serious sampling problems.
poor case control matching.
experimental design errors.
inadequate research design.
a lack of clarity in defining …
serious methodological flaws.
a high degree of sampling bias.
lack of instrumental sensitivity.
considerable design limitations.
the use of poorly matched controls.
a paucity of standardised measures.
notable methodological weaknesses.
fundamental flaws in research design.
lack of a strong theoretical framework.
an over-reliance on self-report methodology.
a restricted range of methodological approaches.
shortcomings in the methods used to select cases.
a lack of well-grounded theoretical considerations.
several conceptual and methodological weaknesses.
Previous studies (of X) / Most of these studies
have
only involved …
only been carried out in …
only been undertaken using …
only provided weak evidence for …
been of poor quality.
been limited in a number of ways.
been limited to convenience samples.
been limited to a small number of cases …
Previous studies
have failed to
assess …
measure …
adjust for …
control for …
investigate …
take account of …
separate the effects of …
address the question of …
identify a means by which …
build a definitive model of …
examine the role played by …
clearly differentiate between …
give sufficient consideration to …
consider X as a possible driving factor of ….
Previous studies have failed to consider
the impact of …
the reasons for …
the evidence for …
the ways in which …
the contexts in which …
several key aspects of …
the variable nature of …
other explanations for …
the complex nature of …
the potential impact of …
the social dimension of …
the dynamic aspects of …
the underlying causes of …
all the possible effects of …
demographic factors that …
the ethical implications of …
the important role played by …
the broader implications of how …
the unique complexities faced by …
the contextual factors that influence …
Previous studies have failed to
find / show / demonstrate
a link between …
any treatment effect.
a connection between …
significant differences in …
any convincing evidence of …
a causal relationship between …
any support for the X hypothesis.
any significant advantages of using …
significant changes in health outcomes …
reliable, repeatable therapeutic effects of …
Recent studies have / The research to date has
not been able to
establish …
confirm earlier …
determine whether …
show a link between …
duplicate these results.
reproduce these findings.
replicate these associations.
rule out the possibility that …
provide robust evidence for …
detect an increase in the risk of …
confirm earlier findings showing …

… much less is known about X.
Evidence for X has been mixed.
It is still not known whether …
The nature of X remains unclear.
(Very) little is known about X in …
What is less clear is the nature of …
What is not yet clear is the impact of X on …
There is still uncertainty, however, whether …
The response of X to Y is not fully understood.
Causal factors leading to X remain speculative.
To date, there has been no reliable evidence that …
The neurobiological basis of this X is poorly understood.
Little is known about X and it is not clear what factors …
To date, only a limited number of Xs have been identified.
Much uncertainty still exists about the relationship between …
To date, studies investigating X have produced equivocal results.
The evidence that X and Y are associated with Z is weak and inconclusive.
This indicates a need to understand the various perceptions of X that exist among …
It is now well established that … However, the influence of X on Y has remained unclear.
Some studies have shown the beneficial effects of …, but others have shown a deterioration in …

To date, (however), there has been
no / little
clear
solid
reliable
definitive
empirical
convincing
conclusive
experimental
evidence that …
However, what is not yet
clear / known / understood
is the role of …
is the nature of …
is the importance of …
is the extent to which …
is the degree to which …
is the actual proportion of …
are the different stages of …
are the circumstances that …
is the actual relationship between …
is the relative importance of the various factors that …
What remains
unclear / unknown
(, however,)
is how …
is why …
is precisely how
is to what degree there exists …
is how different species are distributed in …
is how such policies and practices affect the …
is whether these two systems interact.
is whether the two conditions are related.
is whether or not this finding is a true representation.
is whether these two factors operate independently.
However, (exactly) how
X affects / inhibits / develops / is formed / acquires / damages / produces /increases / benefits from /contributes to Y
remains unclear.
remains poorly understood.
is (still) not yet fully understood.
The extent to which
X influences Y
X determines Y
X plays a role in Y
X has been successful
X changes during …
X presents a risk to Y
X corresponds with Y
X has been alleviated
X has been successful in …
X can be extrapolated to humans
the problem of X is facilitated by Y
these findings have wider relevance
lack of X is causally associated with Y
is (still) remains
unclear.
unknown.
poorly understood.
However,
several / a number of
key / further /critical /essential / additional /important / interesting / unresolved / unanswered / fundamental
questions remain about
the role of …
the nature of …
the effects of …
the aftermath of …
the treatment for …
the development of …

In this paper, I argue that …
This paper has four key aims. Firstly, …
The central thesis of this paper is that …
In the pages that follow, it will be argued that …
Secondly, it aims to assess the extent to which …
In this essay, I attempt to defend the view that …
Specifically, the following issues will be addressed:

This paper
argues that …
gives an account of …
discusses the case of …
analyses the impact of …
attempts to show that …
contests the claim that …
provides an overview of …
reviews the evidence for …
reports on a study which …
addresses the question of …
presents new evidence for …
traces the development of …
explores the ways in which …
assesses the significance of …
highlights the importance of …
considers the implications of …
evaluates the effectiveness of …
critically examines the view that …
proposes a new methodology for …
surveys recent empirical studies on …
examines the relationship between …
compares the different ways in which …
offers a new model for understanding …
investigates the factors that determine …
describes the design and implementation of …
seeks to remedy these problems by analysing the literature of …
The (primary) aim of this paper is to
explore the …
trace the history of …
assess the claim that …
review recent research into the …
explore the relationship between …
contribute to the understanding of …
propose a conceptual theoretical framework based on …
provide empirical and theoretical evidence for the claim that
The aim of this paper is to critically
analyze the effects of …
examine the claim that …
review the evidence for …
examine the ways in which …
review the different approaches used to …
evaluate the rationale behind X’s theory of …
discuss the some of the prominent ideas which …

The specific objective of this study was to …
An objective of this study was to investigate …
This thesis will examine the way in which the …
This study set out to investigate the usefulness of …
This dissertation seeks to explain the development of …
This case study seeks to examine the changing nature of …
The objectives of this research are to determine whether …
The overall aim of this thesis is to review the evidence for …
This prospective study was designed to investigate the use of …
The aim of this study was to develop a better understanding of …
This research examines the emerging role of X in the context of …
This study systematically reviews the data for…, aiming to provide …
Drawing upon two stands of research into X, this study attempts to …
This thesis intends to determine the extent to which … and whether …
This dissertation aims to unravel some of the mysteries surrounding …
This study therefore set out to assess the effect of X …, and the effect of …
The main aim of this study is to investigate the differences between X and Y.
Part of the aim of this project is to develop software that is compatible with …
There are two primary aims of this study: 1. To investigate … 2. To ascertain …
This study seeks to obtain data which will help to address these research gaps.
One purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which these factors were …
The purpose of this investigation was to explore the relationship between X and Y.
The aim of this research project has therefore been to assess the doses and risks associated with …

This study set out to / The aim of this study was to / The purpose of this study was to
explore …
determine whether …
try and establish what …
better understand the …
find a new method for …
evaluate how effective …
assess the feasibility of …
test the hypothesis that …
explore the influence of …
clarify several aspects of …
investigate the impact of …
identify the predictors for …
investigate the effect of X on Y.
develop an understanding of …
gain further understanding of …
compare the two ways of treating …
examine the relationship between …
evaluate a new method of measuring …
determine the predictive validity of the…
understand the views and experiences of …
review in detail the available information on …
describe some of the more recent developments in …
shine new light on these debates through an examination of …
The purpose of this study was to / The aim of this investigation has been to
predict which …
establish whether …
determine whether …
develop a model for …
examine the effects of …
assess the extent to which …
compare the clinical performance of …
explore the relationship between X and Y.
identify the most important factors influencing …

The hypothesis that will be tested is that …
The research questions in this study focused on …
The central question in this dissertation asks how …
Specifically, the following issues will be addressed:
The specific questions which drive the research are:
This research seeks to address the following questions:
The key research question of this study was whether or not …
This study aimed to address the following research questions:
The study sought to answer the following specific research questions:
In particular, this dissertation will examine six main research questions:
Another question is whether …

Data for this study were collected using…
Five works will be examined, all of which …
This paper uses archival data from X to study …
A mixed-method approach was employed using …
This investigation takes the form of a case-study…
Qualitative content analysis was used to examine …
This study utilised clustering techniques to identify …
Contemporary source material was used to examine …
This study was exploratory and interpretative in nature.
This study uses a qualitative case study approach to investigate …
The research data in this thesis is drawn from four main sources: …
This study employed survey methodology to investigate the impact of …
The approach to empirical research adopted for this study was one of …
This dissertation follows a case-study design, with in-depth analysis of …
By employing qualitative modes of enquiry, I attempt to illuminate the …
Qualitative and quantitative research designs were adopted to provide …
This study makes use of oral history interviews as well as archival sources.
Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in this investigation.
A holistic approach is utilised, integrating X, Y and Z material to establish …
The study was conducted in the form of a survey, with data being gathered via …
The methodological approach taken in this study is a mixed methodology based on …
A combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches was used in the data analysis.

This study uses
recent / survey / archival / empirical / interview / qualitative / quantitative / longitudinal / observational
data from X to
assess …
explore …
examine …
estimate …
investigate …

This research sheds new light on …
This study provides new insights into …
The study offers some important insights into …
The present study fills a gap in the literature by …
Understanding the link between X and Y will help …
This is the first study to undertake a longitudinal analysis of …
The importance and originality of this study is that it explores …
The present research explores, for the first time, the effects of …
The findings should make an important contribution to the field of ….
Characterisation of X is important for our increased understanding of …
This study provides an exciting opportunity to advance our knowledge of …
It is hoped that this research will contribute to a deeper understanding of …
This study aims to contribute to this growing area of research by exploring …
This project provided an important opportunity to advance the understanding of …
Therefore, this study makes a major contribution to research on X by demonstrating …
There are several important areas where this study makes an original contribution to …
The experimental work presented here provides one of the first investigations into how …

The study presented
here / in this report / in this thesis
is one of the first investigations
to utilize …
to survey …
to explore …
to focus specifically on …
to assess the impact of …

The thesis does not engage with …
This study is unable to encompass the entire …
Establishing X is beyond the scope of this study.
It is beyond the scope of this study to examine the …
A full discussion of X lies beyond the scope of this study.
The reader should bear in mind that the study is based on …
Another potential problem is that the scope of my thesis may be too broad.
Due to practical constraints, this paper cannot provide a comprehensive review of…

Bazen beşeri bilimlerde ve uygulamalı beşeri bilimlerde bulunur.

I became interested in Xs after reading …
My interest in this area developed while I was …
I have worked closely with X for many years and …
My personal experience of X has prompted this research.
My main reason for choosing this topic is personal interest.
The genesis of this thesis can be traced back to the time I spent …
It is my experience of working with X that has driven this research.
This project was conceived during my time working for X. As a medical advisor, I witnessed …

This paper begins by … It will then go on to …
The first section of this paper will examine …
The essay has been organised in the following way.
The remaining part of the paper proceeds as follows: …
The main issues addressed in this paper are: a), b and c).
This paper first gives a brief overview of the recent history of X.
This paper has been divided into four parts. The first part deals with …

The aim of the chapter is to introduce …
This chapter seeks to assess the impact of …
This chapter is subdivided into three sections
This section will attempt to assess whether …
The second part highlights the key theoretical concepts which …
This chapter contextualises the research by providing background information on …
This chapter discusses the specific methods by which the research and analyses were conducted.
My thesis is composed of four themed chapters.
The overall structure of the study takes the form of six chapters.

The thesis is divided into three distinct sections. The first section …
Chapter 2 will consider both the sources and methods of study which will include …
Chapter Two begins by laying out the theoretical dimensions of the research, and looks at how …
The third chapter is concerned with the methodology employed for this study.
Chapter 4 analyses the data gathered and addresses each of the research questions in turn.
Chapter 5 analyses the results of interviews and focus group discussions undertaken during …
The fifth section presents the findings of the research, focusing on the three key themes that …
The purpose of the final chapter is to reflect on the extent to which this study has …

The main
topics / issues / themes / periods / developments
covered in this chapter are …
The second part / The final chapter / The final section
examines …
gives a brief review of …
contextualizes the research by …
discusses the significant findings.
draws upon the entire thesis to …
identifies areas for further research.
ties together the common themes and …
explains the emergent themes influencing …
draws together these various findings, and …
draws together the key findings, making the …
draws together the various strands of the thesis.
gives a brief summary and critique of the findings.
summarizes the main findings of this project and …
summarizes the principal findings of these experiments and …
brings together the lessons from these case studies, and then …
describes the experimental approach and instrumentation utilised in …
ties together the various theoretical and empirical strands in order to …
includes a discussion of the implication of the findings to future research into …

Throughout this paper, the term ‘X’ will refer to …
The term ‘X’ will be used in this thesis to refer to …
The phrase ‘X’ will be used in this study to describe the …
According to Smith (2002), X can be defined as follows: ‘ … ’
In this article, the abbreviation XYZ will be used to refer to …
Throughout this dissertation, the term ‘X’ will be used to refer to …
The term ‘X’ is a relatively new name for …, commonly referred to as …
In this essay, the term ‘X’ will be used in its broadest sense to refer to all …
In this dissertation, the terms ‘X’ and ‘Y’ are used interchangeably to mean …
While a variety of definitions of the term ‘X’ have been suggested, this paper will use the definition
first suggested by Smith (1968) who saw it as …

literature on X lacks clarity regarding …
The literature has emphasised the importance of …
Different theories exist in the literature regarding …
More recent attention has focused on the provision of …
There are relatively few historical studies in the area of …
A great deal of previous research into X has focused on …
A large and growing body of literature has investigated …
Much of the literature since the mid-1990s emphasises the …
Much of the current literature on X pays particular attention to …
There is a large volume of published studies describing the role of …
The existing literature on X is extensive and focuses particularly on …
There is a relatively small body of literature that is concerned with …
The generalisability of much published research on this issue is problematic.
A considerable amount of literature has been published on X. These studies …
What we know about X is largely based upon empirical studies that investigate how …
The academic literature on X has revealed the emergence of several contrasting themes.

Research into X has a long history.
For many years, this phenomenon was surprisingly neglected by …
Prior to the work of Smith (1983) the role of X was largely unknown.
Only in the past ten years have studies of X directly addressed how …
Over the past decade, most research in X has emphasized the use of …
In recent years, there has been an increasing amount of literature on …
Early examples of research into X include … (Smith, 1962; O’Brien, 1974).
During the past 30 years, much more information has become available on …
The first serious discussions and analyses of X emerged during the 1970s with …
Over the past two decades, major advances in molecular biology have allowed …
Historically, research investigating the factors associated with X has focused on …
It is only since the work of Smith (2001) that the study of X has gained momentum.
The construct of X was first articulated by Smith (1977) and popularised in his book: …
It was not until the late 1960s that historians considered X worthy of scholarly attention.
Awareness of X is not recent, having possibly first been described in the 5th century B.C by …
Around the early 1960s small-scale research and case studies began to emerge linking the use of …

Most research on X has been carried out in …
Most researchers investigating X have utilised …
The vast majority of studies on X, have been quantitative.
There are number of large cross-sectional studies which suggest …
Much of the X research has focused on identifying and evaluating the …
Publications that concentrate on X more frequently adopt a historical or chronological approach …

What we know about X is largely based upon
case / clinical / empirical / qualitative / laboratory / longitudinal / comparative / experimental / observational / epidemiological
studies that investigate how …

X is positively related to Y (Smith, 2007).
X is one of the most intense reactions following Y (Zhang, 2003).
X is a principal determining factor of Y (Smith, 2005; Jones, 2013).
There is an unambiguous relationship between X and Y (Rao, 1998).
X is significantly reduced during the first months of … (Smith, 2000; Jones, 2006).
X has been found to oppose the anti-inflammatory actions of Y on Z (Alourfi, 2004).
A relationship exists between an individual’s working memory and their ability to … (Jones, 2002).
GM varieties of maize are able to cross-pollinate with non-GM varieties (Smith, 1998; O’Brien, 2009).

Previous research has established that …
Data from several studies suggest that …
It is now well established from a variety of studies, that …
A number of studies have postulated a convergence between …
Surveys such as that conducted by Smith (1988) have shown that …
Many recent studies (e.g. Smith, 2001; Jones, 2005) have shown that …
Traditionally, it has been argued that … (e.g. Smith, 1960; O’Brien, 1972).
Twenty cohort study analyses have examined the relationship between …
Several biographies of Brown have been published. Smith (2013) presents …
In previous studies on X, different variables have been found to be related to …
A number of authors have considered the effects of … (Smith, 2003; Jones, 2004).
Many historians have argued that … (e.g. Jones, 1987; Johnson, 1990; Smith, 1994).
There is a consensus among social scientists that … (e.g. Jones, 1987; Johnson, 1990; …
Data from several sources have identified the increased X and Y associated with obesity.
At least 120 case-control studies worldwide have examined the relationship between …
It has been demonstrated that a high intake of X results in damage to … (Smith, 1998; …).
Numerous studies have attempted to explain … (for example, Smith, 1996; Kelly, 1998; …).
Previous research findings into X have been inconsistent and contradictory (Smith, 1996; …).
Some cross-sectional studies suggest an association between recent adverse life events and …
There are a large number of published studies (e.g., Smith, 2001; Jones, 2005) that describe the link
between …

It has been
noted that …
argued that …
shown that …
thought that …
assumed that …
reported that …
observed that …
suggested that …
established that …
demonstrated that ….
conclusively shown that …
Previous / Several
studies of X / surveys of X / investigations of X
have
found …
revealed …
reported …
identified …
established …
demonstrated …
shown significant increases in …
To date, / Thus far, / Up to now,
several studies / previous studies / a number of studies
have
used …
found …
reported …
shown that…
indicated that …
linked X with Y.
suggested that …
demonstrated that …
tested the efficacy of …
identified a link between …
investigated the effects of…
begun to examine the use of …
confirmed the effectiveness of …
used longitudinal data to examine …
examined the association between …
attempted to evaluate the impact of …
revealed a correlation between X and Y.
analysed the accuracy and precision of …
explored the relationships between X and Y.
highlighted factors that are associated with …

Several recent studies investigating X have been carried out on …
Recent evidence suggests that … (Smith, 1996; Jones, 1999; Johnson, 2001).
Recently, in vitro studies have shown that X can … (Patel et al., 1997; Jones et al., 1998).
In recent years, a few authors have begun to … (Smith, 1996; Jones, 1999; Johnson, 2001).

Recent studies have / The research to date has
been
concerned with …
conducted using …
carried out using …
largely exploratory.
qualitative in nature.
designed to determine whether …
based on relatively small sample sizes.
undertaken in a variety of healthcare settings.
Previous studies have failed to
find / show / demonstrate
a (any) benefit in …
a (any) link between …
a (any) treatment effect.
a (any) protective effect of …
a (any) connection between …
a (any) correlation between …
a (any) causal relationship between …
a (any) consistent association between …
a (any) statistically significant difference …
(any) convincing evidence of …
any) benefits associated with …
(any) significant differences in …
(any) support for the X hypothesis.
(any) significant advantages of using …
(any) significant changes in health outcomes …
(any) reliable, repeatable therapeutic effects of …
Prior studies have / Recent studies have / The research to date has
not been able to
establish …
confirm earlier …
determine whether …
convincingly show that …
reproduce these findings.
account for all aspects of …
replicate these associations.
confirm earlier findings showing …

The X problem has been extensively studied.
Xs have been studied extensively in vitro, using …
X has been intensively investigated recently due to its …
Markers for the prediction of X have been widely investigated.
X has also been shown to reverse the anti-inflammatory effects of Y in …
These effects have been shown in X (e.g., Smith et al., 1981; Jones, 1996).
Factors thought to be influencing X have been explored in several studies.
The geology of X has been addressed in several small-scale investigations and …
The roles of X have been studied extensively (Jones, 1989; Johnson, 1994; Smith, 1998).
The causes of X have been widely investigated (Jones, 1987; Johnson, 1990; Smith, 1994).
X has been identified as a major contributing factor to the decline of many species of … (1).
The relationship between X and Y has been widely investigated (Smith, 1985; Jones, 1987, …

The first detailed study of X was …
Smith (1960) was one of the first to examine …
The first systematic study of X was reported by …
One of the most cited studies is that of Smith who sees …
X is most commonly associated with the work of Jones (1960).
The first major fieldwork project that was undertaken in X was …
A good summary of the classification of X has been provided in the work of …
In a comprehensive literature review of X, Smith identified three significant …
One well-known study that is often cited in research on X is that of Smith (1972), who found …
The innovative and seminal work of Smith pioneered a new approach to examining X and provided a
valuable insight into …

In his seminal text, XXXXX, Smith devoted some attention to ….
One of the most influential accounts of X comes from Smith (1986).
In Smith’s landmark paper XXXXX (1956), he adopted a Y approach to
X, writing in the fifth century BC, provides the earliest description of …
One well-known early study that is often cited in research on X is that of …
In her seminal paper entitled XXXXX, Smith (1981) identified problems with …
Among the historiography of X, perhaps the most well-known work is that of …
Smith, in his comprehensive biography of X, devoted a substantial section to …
Davies et al., in their book XXXXX (2006), give some reliable methods for calculating …
A more substantial approach to the longer-term significance of X can be found in Smith’s recent
article in …

Smith’s comparative study (2012) found that …
Jones’s comprehensive review concluded that …
Brown’s (1992) model of X assumes three main …
Smith’s cross-country analysis (2012) showed that …

Smith (1999)
showed that reducing X to 190oC decreased … (see Figure 2) .
demonstrated that when the maximum temperature is exceeded …
found that as levels of literacy and education of the population rise …
To examine this issue …
To determine whether the …
To compare the X with Y, we …
To further investigate the role of …
To further examine the role of …
Smith et al. (1984) carried out a series of experiments
Jones et al. (2001)
compared the rate of …
labelled these subsets as …
measured both components of the …
used a survey to assess the various …
identified parents of disabled children as …
set up a series of virtual experiments using …
examined the flow of international students …
carried out a number of investigations into the …
studied the effects of X on unprotected nerve cells.
analyzed the data from 72 countries and concluded that …
interviewed 250 undergraduate students using semi-structured …
performed a similar series of experiments in the 1960s to show that …
reviewed the literature from the period and found little evidence for this …
conducted a series of trials in which he mixed X with different quantities of …
investigated the differential impact of formal and non-formal education on …

One longitudinal study found that …
A seminal study in this area is the work of …
One study by Smith (2014) examined the trend in …
A recent study by Smith and Jones (2012) involved …
A qualitative study by Smith (2003) described how …
A recent systematic literature review concluded that …
A longitudinal study of X by Smith (2012) reports that …
Preliminary work on X was undertaken by Abdul Karim (1992).
A key study comparing X and Y is that of Smith (2010), in which …
The first systematic study of X was reported by Patel et al. in 1986.
Detailed examination of X by Smith and Patel (1961) showed that …
Analysis of the genes involved in X was first carried out by Smith et al. (1983).
A significant analysis and discussion on the subject was presented by Smith (1988).
The study of the structural behaviour of X was first carried out by Rao et al. (1986).
A small scale study by Smith (2012) reached different conclusions, finding no increase in …
The study by Jones (1990) offers probably the most comprehensive empirical analysis of …

In an analysis of X, Smith et al. (2012) found …
In a follow-up study, Smith et al. (2009) found that …
In an investigation into X, Smith et al. (2012) found …
In a study investigating X, Smith (2004) reported that …
In a comprehensive study of X, Jones (2001) found that …
In a study conducted by Smith (1978), it was shown that …
In studies of rats given X, Smith and colleagues found that …
In a study which set out to determine X, Smith (2012) found that …
In a randomised controlled study of X, Smith (2012) reported that …
In another major study, Zhao (1974) found that just over half of the …
In a recent cross-sectional study, Smith (2006b) investigated whether …
In a large longitudinal study, Smith et al. (2012) investigated the incidence of X in Y.
In one well-known recent experiment, limits on X were found to be … (Al-Masry, 2013)

X, Y and Z are closely linked (Smith , 2008)
To determine the effects of X, Zhao et al. (2005) compared …
X appears to be positively related to both Y and Z (Smith , 2007)
X was originally isolated from Y in a soil sample from … (Wang et al., 1952).
The electronic spectroscopy of X was first studied by Smith and Jones in 1970.
X formed the central focus of a study by Smith (2002) in which the author found …
X was first demonstrated experimentally by Pavlov (Smith, 2002). In his seminal study …
The acid-catalyzed condensation reaction between X and Y was first reported by Smith in 1872
To better understand the mechanisms of X and its effects, Al-Masry (2013) analysed the …
The way in which the X gene is regulated was studied extensively by Ho and colleagues (Ho et al.
1995 and 1998).

In Chapter 2, Smith provides us with a number of important …
In the subsequent chapter, Smith examines the extent to which …
By drawing on the concept of X, Smith has been able to show that …
Some analysts (e.g. Carnoy, 2002) have attempted to draw fine distinctions between …
Drawing on an extensive range of sources, the authors set out the different ways in which …
Other authors (see Harbison, 2003; Kaplan, 2004) question the usefulness of such an approach.

In her review of …,
In her major study,
In her case study of …,
In her introduction to …,
In her seminal article,
In her classic critique of …,
In her interesting analysis of …,
Smith (2012) identifies five characteristics of …
Smith (2013)
stresses the role played by …
draws a distinction between …
emphasizes the importance of …
challenges the misconception that …
pinpoints a number of similarities between …
identifies X, Y, and Z as the major causes of …
draws on an extensive range of sources to assess …
highlights the need to break the link between X and Y.
uses examples of these various techniques as evidence that …
mentions the special situation of Singapore as an example of …
questions whether mainstream schools are the best environment for …
draws our attention to distinctive categories of X often observed in …
considers whether countries work well on cross-border issues such as …
discusses the challenges and strategies for facilitating and promoting …
provides in-depth analysis of the work of Aristotle showing its relevance to …
defines evidence based medicine as the conscious, explicit and judicious use of …
lists three reasons why the English language has become so dominant. These are: …
traces the development of Japanese history and philosophy during the 19th century.

Smith (1973, cited in Jones, 2002) points out that …
Smith draws on the work of Jones (1959) who suggested that …
Building on the work of Jones (2000), Smith (2005) argues that …
Smith (2003) revisits and updates the Jones (1996) model of X by …
Smith (2000, citing Jones, 1998) points out, X has been shown to result in …
The view of that … … is supported by Smith (2003) who draws on Jones’ (1996) comparison of …

Smith (2013)
claims / argues / maintains / concludes / suggests / points out
that
preventative medicine is far more cost effective, and therefore better adapted to the developing world.
Smith (2013)
offers / argues for / proposes / suggests
an explanatory theory for each type of ….

Similarly, Nicoladis (2006) found that X …
In the same vein, Smith (1994) in his book XYZ notes …
This view is supported by Jones (2000) who writes that …
Smith argues that her data support O’Brien’s (1988) view that …
Al-Masry’s (1986) work on X is complemented by Smith’s (2009) study of …
Almost every paper that has been written on X includes a section relating to …

Smith argues that … / Al-Masry (2003) sees X as …
Similarly, Jones (2013) asserts that …
Likewise, Wang (2012) holds the view that …
In the same vein, Smith (1994) in his book XXXX notes …

Other studies have concluded that …
Unlike Smith, Jones (2013) argues that …
In contrast to Smith, Jones (2013) argues that …
A broader perspective has been adopted by Smith (213) who argues that …
Contrary to previously published studies, Johnson et al. demonstrated the efficacy of…
Conversely, Wang (2010) reported no significant difference in mortality between X and Y.

Smith (2010) presents an X account, whilst Jones (2011) …
While Smith (2008) focuses on X, Jones (2009) is more concerned with …

Some writers (e.g. Smith, 2002) have attempted to draw fine distinctions between …
Others (see Jones, 2003; Brown, 2004) question the usefulness of …
Some authors have mainly been interested in questions concerning X (Smith, 2001; Jones …)
Others have highlighted the relevance of …
Whilst Smith identifies X as the principal dimension of Y,
Jones (2000) has taken a different approach by
focusing on …
Much of the available literature on X deals with the question of …
However, Smith (2008) is much more concerned with …
According to some studies, X is represented as … (Smith, 2012; Davis, 2014)
However, others propose … (Jones, 2014; Brown, 2015)
Smith (2013) found that X accounted for approximately 30% of Y.
Other researchers, however, who have looked at X, have found … Jones (2010), for example, …
Zhao (2002) reports that …
Jennings’ (2010) study of Y, however, found little evidence of …

Commenting on X, Smith (2003) argues: ‘… …’
As Carnoy (2004: 215) states: ‘there are many good reasons to be skeptical’.
As Smith argues: ‘In the past, the purpose of education was to …’ (Smith, 2000:150).
In the final part of the Theses on Feuerbach, Marx writes: ‘Philosophers have hitherto only …’
Sachs concludes: ‘The idea of development stands today like a ruin in …’ (Sachs, 1992a: 156).

As Smith
notes: ‘… … … … … ‘
argues: ‘… … … … … ‘
writes: ‘… … … … … ‘
observes: ‘… … … … … ‘
points out: ‘… … … … … ‘
reminds us: ‘… … … … … ‘
(Smith 2003: 23).

Together, these studies indicate that …
Overall, these studies highlight the need for …
Considering all of this evidence, it seems that …
Collectively, these studies outline a critical role for…
The evidence presented in this section suggests that …
The studies presented thus far provide evidence that …
Taken together, these studies support the notion that …
Overall, there seems to be some evidence to indicate that …
Together these studies provide important insights into the …
All of the studies reviewed here support the hypothesis that …
Two important themes emerge from the studies discussed so far:
However, such studies remain narrow in focus dealing only with …
The evidence reviewed here seems to suggest a pertinent role for …
These studies clearly indicate that there is a relationship between …
In view of all that has been mentioned so far, one may suppose that …
There remain several aspects of X about which relatively little is known.

Overall, these studies
suggest that …
suggest the efficacy of …
suggest an inverse association between …
suggest that the self-report method possesses …
suggest that both X and Y play a role in the development of …
illustrate how …
illustrate the role of …
illustrate the flexibility of …
illustrate the heterogeneity of …
illustrate just how important X is in …
Overall, these studies
highlight the need for …
highlight the complexity of …
highlight the positive aspects of …
highlight the beneficial effects of …
highlight the unique relationship between …
indicate a link between …
consistently indicate that …
clearly indicate the importance of …
indicate that Xs are often important predictors of …
indicate that the X has only a slight impact, if any, on …
provide mixed evidence for …
provide converging evidence for …
provide evidence for the usefulness of …
provide strong evidence for the efficacy of …
provide reasonably consistent evidence of an association between …
show weak evidence of …
show that Xs may serve as important …
show a modest correlation between X and Y.
show that X is caused by a complex system of …
show that a change from X to Y is usually associated with …

The previous section has shown that …
In conclusion, these studies show that …
The evidence reviewed here seems to suggest …
To conclude this section, the literature identifies …
This review has demonstrated the shortcomings of …
In summary, it has been shown from this review that …
Taken together, these studies support the notion that …
In summary, little is known about the interrelationships between …
This section has attempted to provide a brief summary of the literature relating to …

Yöntem Bölümü

bilimsel makalede yöntem bölümü

Bilimsel makalede yöntem bölümü diğer araştırmacılar tarafından da kullanılacağı için oldukça önemlidir.

Bu bölümde, yapmış olduğunuz çalışmadaki belirli teknik ve yöntemlerin nasıl uygulandığı ve gerekçeleri açıklanır. Çalışmanızın geçerli olup olmadığını değerlendiren bilgileri de bu bölümde verebilirsiniz.

Aşağıdaki sekmelerden yöntem bölümünüzün ilgili kısmı için sekmeyi açarak cümle kalıplarını görebilirsiniz.

Many researchers have utilized X to measure …
One of the most well-known tools for assessing …
Traditionally, X has been assessed by measuring …
A number of techniques have been developed to …
Different methods have been proposed to classify …
X is the main non-invasive method used to determine …
Different authors have measured X in a variety of ways.
Previous studies have based their criteria for selection on …
X is one of the most common procedures for determining …
Several methods currently exist for the measurement of Xs
There are three main types of study design used to identify …
The use of life story data has a relatively long tradition within X.
Recent advances in X methods have facilitated investigation of …
There are a number of instruments available for measuring the …
X and Y are currently the most popular methods for investigating …
Recently, simpler and more rapid tests of X have been developed.
In most recent studies, X has been measured in four different ways.
The use of qualitative case studies is a well-established approach in …
Xs have been used in the past to investigate the mechanical properties of …
Case studies have been long established in X to present detailed analysis of …
This test is widely available and has been used in many investigational studies.
To date, various methods have been developed and introduced to measure X.
In recent years, two different approaches have attempted to account for the …
The methods for measuring X have varied somewhat across this research area.
In recent years, molecular methods have been utilised for the quantification of …
A variety of methods are used to assess X. Each has its advantages and drawbacks.
More recent examples of narrative studies within X can be found in the work of Smith (2010).
Two of the most common methods for estimating X are the use of Y and the measurement of Z.

Various / Different
methods have been
utilized to / proposed to / employed to
assess …
test for…
identify …
capture …
measure …
quantify …
determine …
investigate …

A major advantage of X is that …
X based methods provide a means of …
A case study approach was used to allow a …
This method is particularly useful in studying …
A quantitative approach was employed since …
Qualitative methods offer an effective way of …
The design of the questionnaires was based on …
The X method is one of the more practical ways of …
The semi-structured approach was chosen because …
The X approach has a number of attractive features: …
The advantages of Xs are that they are simple to deliver.
The second advantage of using the multivariate method is …
The study uses qualitative analysis in order to gain insights into …
One advantage of the X analysis is that it avoids the problem of …
Another advantage of using computer simulations is that it allows …
Continuous sampling methods have a number of advantages over …
The collaborative nature of the focus group offers another advantage …
It was decided that the best method to adopt for this investigation was to …
Qualitative methods can be more useful for identifying and characterizing …
Many of the distributions were not normal so non-parametric signed rank tests were run.
It was considered that quantitative measures would usefully supplement and extend the …

In a recent article, Smith (2009) argues that case studies offer …
Smith et al. (1994) identify several advantages of the case study …
Case studies are seen as useful when the contextual conditions of the research are …
According to Smith (2011), semi-structured interviews have a wide-spread popularity in …
The sensitivity of the X technique has been demonstrated in a report by Smith et al. (2011).
Smith (2006) points out that there is a role for both qualitative and quantitative approaches in …

A case-study approach was
used / chosen / adopted
to ensure that …
to help understand how …
to allow a deeper insight into …
to conduct this exploratory study.
to evaluate the effectiveness of …
to gain a detailed understanding of …
to determine the factors that affect …
to assess the management practices of …
to obtain further in-depth information on the …
to capture the complexities of the phenomenon.
to provide rounded, detailed illustrations of the …
A(n) / The / One
key / major / distinct / obvious / practical / potential / additional / important / significant
advantage of using
z scores
a rating scale
focus groups
self-report data
secondary data
longitudinal data
retrospective data
regression analysis
natural speech data
semi-structured interviews
a convenience sample
a case study approach
a comparative approach
a mixed method approach
a multidimensional approach
is that …

A disadvantage of many cohort studies is that …
A major problem with the experimental method is that …
The main disadvantage of the experimental method is that …
However, there are certain drawbacks associated with the use of …
However, this method clearly is not valid for analysing long-term trends in …
There are obvious difficulties in accepting the reliability of self-report information.
There are certain problems with the use of focus groups. One of these is that there is less …

The cohort was divided into two groups according to …
A random sample of patients with … was recruited from …
Articles were searched from January 1965 until April 2014.
Forty-seven students studying X were recruited for this study.
A systematic literature review was conducted of studies that …
Just over half the sample (53%) was female, of whom 69% were …
Of the initial cohort of 123 students, 66 were female and 57 male.
Eligible women who matched the selection criteria were identified by …
Only children aged between 10 and 15 years were included in the study.
The participants were divided into two groups based on their performance on …
Two groups of subjects were interviewed, namely X and Y. The first group were …
The project used a convenience sample of 32 first year modern languages students.
All of the participants were aged between 18 and 19 at the beginning of the study…
All studies described as using some sort of X procedure were included in the analysis.
Participants were recruited from 15 clinics across …, covering urban and rural areas …
The initial sample consisted of 200 students, 75 of whom belonged to minority groups.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 male offenders with a mean age of 38 years.

Criteria for selecting the subjects were as follows:
Publications were only included in the analysis if .…
To identify X, the following parameters were used …
The area of study was chosen for its relatively small …
Primary inclusion criteria for the X participants were …
Eligibility criteria required individuals to have received …
Five individuals were excluded from the study on the basis of …
A small sample was chosen because of the expected difficulty of obtaining …
The subjects were selected on the basis of a degree of homogeneity of their …
A comparison group of 12 male subjects without any history of X was drawn from a pool of …

X was prepared according to the procedure used by Patel et al. (1957).
The synthesis of X was done according to the procedure of Smith (1973).
X was synthesized using the same method that was detailed for Y, using …
Samples were analyzed for X as previously reported by Smith et al. (2012).
Analysis was based on the conceptual framework proposed by Smith et al. (2002).
This compound was prepared by adapting the procedure used by Zhao et al. (1990).

The data were normalized using …
Ethical approval was obtained from
Drugs were administered by icv injection …
Descriptive data were generated for all variables.
The procedures of this study were approved by …
Prompts were used as an aid to question two so that …
Data were collected using semi-structured interviews in …
The experiments were run using custom software written in…
Two sets of anonymized questionnaires were completed by
A total of 256 samples were taken from 52 boreholes (Figure 11).
The solution was washed three times with deionized water and …
Significance levels were set at the 1% level using the student t-test.
Data management and analysis were performed using SPSS 16.0 (2010).
Published studies were identified using a search strategy developed in …
Data were gathered from multiple sources at various time points during …
Injection solutions were coded by a colleague to reduce experimenter bias.
The pilot interviews were conducted informally by the trained interviewer …
Article references were searched further for additional relevant publications.
The subjects were asked to pay close attention to the characters whenever …
The experiments were conducted over the course of the growing period from …
Blood samples were obtained with consent, from 256 Caucasian male patients …
Independent tests were carried out on the X and Y scores for the four years from …
This experiment was repeated under conditions in which the poor signal/noise ratio was improved.
The mean score for the two trials was subjected to multivariate analysis of variance to determine …

The participants were asked
to comment on …
to complete two tasks.
whether they believed …
to provide feedback on …
a variety of questions about …
to describe an instance when …
to explain what happened during …
a series of open-ended questions that …
to describe what had happened when …
to complete a 20 question survey about …

In order to investigate the effects of …
In order to identify …, the participants were asked to …
In order to help familiarise participants with …, they were asked to …
In order to address these ethical concerns, the following steps were taken: …
In order to understand how X regulates Y, a series of transfections was performed.


To avoid …
To test whether …
To establish whether …,
To better understand how …
To measure X, a question asking … was used.
To determine whether …, the cells were incubated for …
To rule out the possibility that X, the participants were …
To control for bias, measurements were carried out by another person.
To assess whether and how Xs are produced and received, we measured …
To see if the two methods gave the same measurement, the data was plotted and …
To compare the scores three weeks after initial screening, a global ANOVA F-test was used.
To enable the subjects to see the computer screen clearly, the laptop was configured with …
To increase the reliability of measures, each X was tested twice with a 4-minute break between …


The vials were capped with X to prevent …
The process was repeated several times in order to remove …
In an attempt to make each interviewee feel as comfortable as possible, the interviewer …
The interview schedule comprised structured and open questions to identify and explore …

For the attitude questions, a Likert scale was used.
For the purpose of height measurement, subjects were asked to stand …
For the purpose of analysis, two segments were extracted from each …
For the estimation of protein concentration, 100 μL of protein sample was mixed with …

To begin this process, … / The first step in this process was to … / The second method used to identify X involved …
Prior to
commencing the study, ethical clearance was sought from …
analyzing the interview data, the transcripts were checked for …
undertaking the investigation, ethical clearance was obtained from …
data collection, the participants received an explanation of the project.
After
‘training’, the participants were told that …
collection, the samples were shipped back to X in …
testing for the presence of antibodies, the blood was …
the appliance was fitted, the patients attended X every four weeks.
On
arrival at the clinic, patients were asked to …
completion of X, the process of parameter estimation was carried out.
obtaining written informed consent from the patients, a questionnaire was …
Once
the samples were extracted, it was first necessary to …
the Xs were located and marked, a thin clear plastic ruler …
the exposures were completed, the X was removed from the Y and placed in …
the positions had been decided upon, the Xs were removed from each Y and ….
Following
correction for …, X was reduced to …
conformational analysis of X, it was necessary to …
administration of X to patients, we assessed the effects on …
this treatment, the samples were recovered and stored overnight at …
The participants were then shown a film individually and were asked to …
The soil was then weighed again, and this weight was recorded as …
These ratings were then made for the ten stimuli to which the subject had been exposed …
The preparation was then placed in a custom-built microfluidics chamber, covered with …
When
dividing X, care was taken to …
removing X, it was important to …
inviting the participants, the purpose of the research was clearly explained.
Finally, questions were asked as to the role of …
In the follow-up phase of the study, participants were asked …
The final stage of the study comprised a semi-structured interview with participants who …

The resulting solution was gently mixed at room temperature for …
A sample of the concentrate was then carefully injected into …
The soil was then placed in a furnace and gradually heated up to …
The vials were shaken manually to allow the soil to mix well with the water.
The medium was then aseptically transferred to a conical flask.
The tubes were accurately reweighed to six decimal places using …

All the work on the computer was carried out using …
Data were collected using two high spectral resolution Xs.
Semi-automated genotyping was carried out using X software and …
Using the X-ray and looking at the actual X, it was possible to identify …
Comparisons between the two groups were made using unrelated t-tests
The data were recorded on a digital audio recorder and transcribed using a …
Statistical significance was analysed using analysis of variance and t-tests as appropriate..
15 subjects were recruited using email advertisements requesting healthy students from …

The data were normalized using …
A p value <0.05 was considered significant.
Descriptive data were generated for all variables.
Reliability was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha.
All analyses were carried out using SPSS, version 20.
Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 20).
Significance levels were set at the 1% level using the student t-test.
Data management and analysis were performed using SPSS 16.0 (2010).
The mean score for the two trials was subjected to multivariate analysis of variance to determine …

In particular, the analysis of X was problematic.
In observational studies, there is a potential for bias from …
The small size of the dataset meant that it was not possible to …
Further data collection is required to determine exactly how X affects Y.
Another major source of uncertainty is in the method used to calculate X.
In this investigation there are several sources for error. The main error is …
It was not possible to investigate the significant relationships of X and Y further because…
The responses relating to X were subjective and were therefore susceptible to recall bias.

Bulgular Bölümü

bilimsel yayın yazımı bilimsel makalede bulgular

Bilimsel makalede bulgular bölümünün amacı, araştırmanızın temel sonuçlarını sunmaktır. Bulgular ve tartışmalar, araştırma makalenizi gönderdiğiniz derginin gereksinimlerine bağlı olarak bir bölüm halinde birleştirilebilir veya ayrı bölümler olarak düzenlenebilir.

Aşağıdaki sekmelerden bulgular bölümünüzün ilgili kısmı için sekmeyi açarak cümle kalıplarını görebilirsiniz.

The first set of questions aimed to …
The purpose of Experiment 3 was to …
Simple statistical analysis was used to …
The next question asked the informants …
To assess X, the Y questionnaire was used.
Changes in X and Y were compared using …
Regression analysis was used to predict the …
To distinguish between these two possibilities, …
The first set of analyses examined the impact of …
The correlation between X and Y was tested using …
T-tests were used to analyse the relationship between …
The average scores of X and Y were compared in order to …
In order to assess Z, repeated-measures ANOVAs were used.
Nine items on the questionnaire measured the extent to which …
To compare the scores three weeks after initial screening, a global ANOVA F-test was used.
The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship
between …

Table 1 / Figure 1
shows / displays / presents / provides / compares
an overview of …
the experimental data on X.
the summary statistics for …
the breakdown of X according to …
the median and range of scores for each group.
the intercorrelations among the nine measures of X.
the results obtained from the preliminary analysis of X.
The table below illustrates
The pie chart above shows
The top half of the table shows
The bottom half of the table shows
the proportion of different categories of …
The results of the correlational analysis / The themes identified in these responses / The results obtained from the preliminary analysis of X
are shown
are set out
are displayed
are presented
are summarized
can be seen
can be compared
in Table 1. / in Figure 1.
As shown in Figure 1,
Looking at Figure 3, it is apparent that
As can be seen from the table (above),
From the graph above we can see that
It can be seen from the data in Table 1 that
the X group reported significantly more Y than the
other two groups.

What stands out in the table is …
It is apparent from this table that very few …
The most interesting aspect of this graph is …
In Fig.10 there is a clear trend of decreasing …
What is striking about the figures in this table is …
What is interesting about the data is in this table that …
The differences between X and Y are highlighted in Table 4.
From the chart, it can be seen that by far the greatest demand is for …
From this data, we can see that Study 2 resulted in the lowest value of …
This table is quite revealing in several ways. First, unlike the other tables …
From the data in Figure 9, it is apparent that the length of time left between …
Data from this table can be compared with the data in Table 4.6 which shows …
As Table III shows, there is a significant difference (t = -2.15, p = 0.03) between the two groups.

What stands out in this
table / chart / figure
is the growth of …
is the high rate of …
is the dominance of …
is the wide range of …
is the rapid decrease in …
is the general pattern of …
is the difference between …

The mean score for X was …
Further analysis showed that …
Further statistical tests revealed …
A two-way ANOVA revealed that …
On average, Xs were shown to have …
Strong evidence of X was found when …
This result is significant at the P = 0.05 level.
The results, as shown in Table 1, indicate that …
A positive correlation was found between X and Y.
There was a significant positive correlation between …
The difference between the X and Y groups was significant.
There was a significant difference in X, t(11) = 2.906, p<0.01
There was a significant difference between the two conditions …
Respondents who reported low levels of X also reported significantly lower levels of Y.

No increase in X was detected.
No difference greater than X was observed.
No significant differences were found between …
None of these differences were statistically significant.
No significant difference between the two groups was evident.
No significant reduction in X was found compared with placebo.
No evidence was found for non-linear associations between X and Y.
No significant correlation was found between X scores and the Y scores (p = .274)
Only trace amounts of X were detected in …
There was no evidence that X has an influence on …
The Chi-square test did not show any significant differences between …
Overall, X did not affect males and females differently in these measures.
A clear benefit of X in the prevention of Y could not be identified in this analysis.
T-tests found no significant differences in mean scores on the X and Y subscales.

There was no
increase of X associated with …
significant difference between …
evidence that X has an influence on …
observed difference in the number of …
No statistically significant
difference / correlation
between the means was found.
between the two groups was evident.
was observed between X and Y groups.
was found between X score and the Y scores.
between the mean scores of these groups was evident.

Interestingly, the X was observed to …
This result is somewhat counterintuitive.
Interestingly, this correlation is related to …
The more surprising correlation is with the …
Surprisingly, only a minority of respondents …
The most surprising aspect of the data is in the …
The correlation between X and Y is interesting because …
The most striking result to emerge from the data is that …
Interestingly, there were also differences in the ratios of …
The single most striking observation to emerge from the data comparison was …

This is a/an (rather)
surprising
significant
interesting
remarkable
unexpected
disappointing
result. / outcome.

Stimulation of X cells with Y did not increase the …
With successive increases in intensity of the X, the Y moved further to …
Following the addition of X, a significant increase (P<0.05) in the Y was recorded.
When X cells were stimulated with Y, no significant difference in the number of Z was detected.

The overall response to this question was poor.
Thirty-two individuals returned the questionnaires.
The overall response to this question was very positive.
The response rate was 60% at six months and 56% at 12 months.
Of the study population, 90 subjects completed and returned the questionnaire.
Of 150 patients who were sent invitations, 81 returned the reply slip, of whom 60 agreed to …
By the end of the survey period, data had been collected from 64 individuals, 23 of whom were …


There were 53 responses to the question: ‘…?’
Respondents were asked to indicate whether …
Respondents were asked to suggest other reasons for …
The total number of responses for this question was …
In response to the question: ‘…?’, a range of responses was elicited.
This section of the questionnaire required respondents to give information on …


Over half of those surveyed reported that …
70% of those who were interviewed indicated that ….
Almost two-thirds of the participants (64%) said that ….
The majority of those who responded to this item felt that …
Approximately, half of those surveyed did not comment on ….
When asked whether …, 90% of the respondents reported that …

Just over half of those who answered this question reported that …
In response to Question 1, most of those surveyed indicated that …
When the participants were asked ……, the majority commented that …
Of the 62 participants who responded to this question, 30 reported an increase in …
Of the 148 patients who completed the questionnaire, just over half indicated that …


Some participants expressed the belief that …
A minority of participants (17%) indicated that …
Only a small number of respondents indicated that …
A small number of those interviewed suggested that ….
For a small number of participants X was the reason for …

One / Some / A few / A number of / A small number of / The majority of
Informant(s) / participant(s) / interviewee(s)
felt that …
remarked …
referred to …
emphasized …
reported that …
attributed X to …
suggested that …
commented that …
offered evidence of …
explicitly referred to …
questioned whether …
expressed a desire for …
were reluctant to discuss …
were able to identify with …
offered an explanation for …
expressed concerns about …
were particularly critical of …
agreed with the statement that …
welcomed the opportunity to focus on …

It was also suggested that …
Another reported problem was …
Concerns were expressed about …
Opinions differed as to whether …
There were some suggestions that …
Concerns regarding X were more widespread.
In their accounts of the events surrounding …
There were some negative comments about …
This view was echoed by another informant who ..
One concern expressed regarding X was whether …
Some interviewees argued that … , while others …
Some felt that … , while others considered that …
Whilst a minority mentioned that…, all agreed that…

As one interviewee said: ‘… ‘
As one interviewee put it: ‘… ‘
One informant reported that …
The comment below illustrates …
One participant commented: ‘ …’
For example, one interviewee said: ‘… ‘
In one case, the participant thought that …
Another interviewee, when asked …, said: ‘…’
Other responses to this question included: ‘… ‘
Another interviewee alluded to the notion of …
Talking about this issue an interviewee said: ‘…’
Commenting on X, one of the interviewees said …
One individual stated that ‘…’ And another commented ‘…’

A number of issues were identified …
In all cases, the informants reported …
A variety of perspectives were expressed …
These views surfaced mainly in relation to …
There was a sense of X amongst interviewees.
Five broad themes emerged from the analysis.
The participants on the whole demonstrated …
A common view amongst interviewees was that …
This theme came up for example in discussions of …
The themes of X and Y recurred throughout the dataset.
Two divergent and often conflicting discourses emerged …
Two discrete reasons emerged from this. First … Second …
Issues related to X were not particularly prominent in the interview data.
A recurrent theme in the interviews was a sense amongst interviewees that …

If we now turn to …
A comparison of the two results reveals …
Turning now to the experimental evidence on …
Comparing the two results, it can be seen that …
The next section of the survey was concerned with …
In the final part of the survey, respondents were asked …

These results suggest that …
Overall, these results indicate that …
In summary, these results show that …
In summary, for the informants in this study, …
Together these results provide important insights into …
Taken together, these results suggest that there is an association between …
The results in this chapter indicate that … The next chapter, therefore, moves on to discuss the …

Tartışma Bölümü

bilimsel yayın yazımı bilimsel makalede tartışma

Bilimsel makalede tartışma bölümü (Discussion), araştırma sonuçlarınızın anlam kazandığı, önemini ve alaka düzeyini araştırdığınız kısımdır. 

Bulgularınızı açıklamaya ve değerlendirmeye, literatürle ve araştırma alanınızla nasıl ilişkili olduğunu göstermeye ve genel sonucunuzu desteklemek için bir argüman oluşturmaya odaklanmalıdır.

Bu bölümün amacı, araştırılan araştırma problemi hakkında halihazırda bilinenlerin ışığında bulgularınızın önemini yorumlamak ve açıklamak ve problemle ilgili yeni anlayışları veya yeni kavrayışları açıklamaktır.

Aşağıdaki sekmelerden tartışma bölümünüzün ilgili kısmı için sekmeyi açarak cümle kalıplarını görebilirsiniz.

Several reports have shown that …
As mentioned in the literature review, …
The third question in this research was …
Prior studies that have noted the importance of …
An initial objective of the project was to identify …
The first question in this study sought to determine …
It was hypothesized that participants with a history of …
Very little was found in the literature on the question of …
The present study was designed to determine the effect of …
With respect to the first research question, it was found that …
This study set out with the aim of assessing the importance of X in …
Previous studies evaluating X observed inconsistent results on whether …
A strong relationship between X and Y has been reported in the literature.
In reviewing the literature, no data was found on the association between X and Y.

One interesting finding is …
The current study found that …
Another important finding was that …
In this study, Xs were found to cause …
The most interesting finding was that …
The results of this study show/indicate that …
On the question of X, this study found that …
This experiment did not detect any evidence for …
The most obvious finding to emerge from the analysis is that …

(Perhaps) the most
striking
important
significant
interesting
compelling
disturbing
unexpected
clinically relevant
finding is …

What is surprising is that …
Surprisingly, X was found to …
One unanticipated finding was that …
What is curious about this result is that …
Surprisingly, no differences were found in …
This finding was unexpected and suggests that …
One unexpected finding was the extent to which …
It is somewhat surprising that no X was noted in this condition …
The weak association of X with Y is interesting, but not surprising.
One surprising variable that was found to be significantly associated with X was …
These findings are somewhat surprising given the fact that other research shows …
Contrary to expectations, this study did not find a significant difference between …
However, the observed difference between X and Y in this study was not significant.
However, the ANOVA (one way) showed that these results were not statistically significant.
It was surprising that the X group scores did not differ significantly from those of the Y group.

This study confirms that X is associated with …
This finding is consistent with that of Smith (2000) who …
Comparison of the findings with those of other studies confirms …
This also accords with our earlier observations, which showed that …
These results reflect those of Smith et al. (1992) who also found that …
Increased activation in the X in this study corroborates these earlier findings.
This finding broadly supports the work of other studies in this area linking X with Y.
In accordance with the present results, previous studies have demonstrated that …
It is encouraging to compare this figure with that found by Jones (1993) who found that …
Consistent with the literature, this research found that participants who reported using X also …
This study supports evidence from clinical observations (e.g. Smith, 1997; Jones et al., 1994) that …
This study produced results which corroborate the findings of a great deal of the previous work in …
There are similarities between the attitudes expressed by X in this study and those described by
(Smith, 1987, 1995).

These results
further support the idea of …
confirm the association between …
are consistent with data obtained in …
match those observed in earlier studies.
are in line with those of previous studies.
are in agreement with those obtained by …
are in accord with recent studies indicating that …
agree with the findings of other studies, in which …
seem to be consistent with other research which found …
mirror those of the previous studies that have examined …
are consistent with those of Smith and Jones (2015) who …
are in keeping with previous observational studies, which …
are in agreement with Smith’s (1999) findings which showed …
support previous research into this brain area which links X and Y.
corroborate the ideas of Smith and Jones (2008), who suggested that …

This study has been unable to demonstrate that …
However, this result has not previously been described.
This outcome is contrary to that of Smith et al. (2001) who found …
This finding is contrary to previous studies which have suggested that …
In contrast to earlier findings, however, no evidence of X was detected.
The yields in this investigation were higher compared to those of other studies.
However, the findings of the current study do not support the previous research.
Smith et al. (1999) showed that …. This differs from the findings presented here …
The overall level was found to be 15%, lower than that of previously reported levels.
It has been suggested that … (Smith et al., 2002). This does not appear to be the case.
The levels observed in this investigation are far below those observed by Smith et al. (2007).
These results differ from X’s 2003 estimate of Y, but they are broadly consistent with earlier …
Although, these results differ from some published studies (Smith, 1992; Jones, 1996), they are
consistent with those of …

A possible explanation for this might be that …
Another possible explanation for this is that …
This result may be explained by the fact that …
There are, however, other possible explanations.
These relationships may partly be explained by …
There are several possible explanations for this result.
Several factors could explain this observation. Firstly, …
A possible explanation for these results may be the lack of adequate …
These differences can be explained in part by the proximity of X and Y.
These factors may explain the relatively good correlation between X and Y.


This inconsistency may be due to …
These results are likely to be related to …
This discrepancy could be attributed to …
It seems possible that these results are due to …
This rather contradictory result may be due to …
The observed increase in X could be attributed to …
It is difficult to explain this result, but it might be related to …
This finding could have been generated by misclassification bias since …
Another possible alternative explanation of our findings is that they are due to …


The possible interference of X cannot be ruled out.
It may be that these participants benefitted from …
Differences between X and Y may have influenced …
These possible sources of error could have affected …
There are two likely causes for the differences between …
This result may reflect differences in the size, quality and …
The reason for this is not clear but it may have something to do with …
The observed correlation between X and Y might be explained in this way: …
Since this difference has not been found elsewhere it is probably not due to …
These conflicting experimental results could be associated with the nature of the …
It is possible that these unmeasured variables could account for some aspects of the results.

This rather
(intriguing) / (interesting) / (surprising) / (unexpected) / (disappointing)
result / finding
could be due to …
may be related to …
might be a result of …
could be attributed to …
can be explained by X.
might be explained by the fact that …

Another source of uncertainty is …
Additional uncertainty arises from …
A note of caution is due here since …
These findings may be somewhat limited by …
The possible interference of X cannot be ruled out.
These findings cannot be extrapolated to all patients.
These data must be interpreted with caution because …
It could be argued that the positive results were due to …
These results therefore need to be interpreted with caution.
In observational studies, there is a potential for bias from …
It is important to bear in mind the possible bias in these responses.
Although exclusion of X did not …, these results should be interpreted with caution.
However, with a small sample size, caution must be applied, as the findings might not be …

It is possible that these results
are due to …
are limited to …
are only valid for …
do not represent the …
have been confounded by …
may have been skewed by …
might be biased because of …
could be a statistical anomaly.
were influenced by the lack of …
merely reflect a selection effect.
may underestimate the role of …
are not a true representation of …
underestimate the true prevalence of …
might not be applicable to other groups …
are an artefact of our experimental design.
are biased, given the self-reported nature of …
will not be reproducible on a wide scale across …
may not be generalizable to a broader range of …

These findings are rather disappointing.
However, these results were not very encouraging.
The test was successful as it was able to identify students who …
The present results are significant in at least two major respects.
Unfortunately, these findings are rather difficult to interpret because …

This is a/an / These are
key
useful
positive
valuable
troubling
surprising
important
significant
interesting
reassuring
remarkable
encouraging
disappointing
result(s). / finding(s).
This is a / These are
rather / somewhat / particularly
useful
troubling
surprising
reassuring
remarkable
encouraging
disappointing
result(s). / finding(s).

These findings suggest that …
It is possible, therefore, that …
It can thus be suggested that …
In general, therefore, it seems that …
The findings reported here suggest that …
According to these data, we can infer that …
It is possible/likely/probable therefore that …
The present study raises the possibility that …
Hence, it could conceivably be hypothesized that …
This observation may support the hypothesis that …
It may be the case therefore that these variations …
It is therefore likely that such connections exist between …
The value of X suggests that a weak link may exist between …
These results provide further support for the hypothesis that …
Therefore, X could be a major factor, if not the only one, causing …
It is possible to hypothesize that these conditions are less likely to occur in …

It can therefore be assumed that the …
This provides some explanation as to why …
An implication of this is the possibility that …
One of the issues that emerges from these findings is …
These initial results are suggestive of a link between X and Y .
Some of the issues emerging from this finding relate specifically to …
This combination of findings provides some support for the conceptual premise that …

These
findings / results
suggest that …
challenge the notion that …
might further indicate that …
may help us to understand …
may be taken to indicate that …
have important implications for developing …
may reflect differences in the size, quality and …
raise intriguing questions regarding the nature and extent of …
suggest that the lowering of x may reduce hospital admissions for …
These findings
may / will / might / should
help us to / help others to
shape …
design…
predict …
develop …
prioritize …
find new ways of …
better understand …

This is an important issue for future research.
Research questions that could be asked include …
There are still many unanswered questions about …
Several questions remain unanswered at present.
Despite these promising results, questions remain.
Further work is required to establish the viability of…
Further research should be undertaken to investigate the …
There is abundant room for further progress in determining …
A further study with more focus on X is therefore suggested.
Future studies on the current topic are therefore recommended.
In further research, the use of this data as X could be a means of …
To develop a full picture of X additional studies will be needed that …
In future investigations, it might be possible to use a different X in which …
Further studies, which take these variables into account, will need to be undertaken.
However, more research on this topic needs to be undertaken before the association between X and
Y is more clearly understood.

Further
work is / research is / studies are / investigations are
required to / needed to
identify the …
establish how …
confirm whether …
assess the risks of …
ascertain whether …
determine whether …
examine the effects of …
evaluate the impact of …
address the following questions:
explore the mechanisms behind …
assess the longer term impact of …
confirm and validate these findings.
identify or develop drugs that can …
assess the competing therapies for …
develop reliable analytical methods for …
shed light on the mechanism underlying …
provide greater insight into the effects of …
gain a better understanding of the possible …
establish the effectiveness of treatment with …
better understand the mechanisms underlying …

Sonuçlar Bölümü

bilimsel yayın yazımı bilimsel makalede sonuç

Bilimsel makalede sonuç, makalenin önemli bir parçasıdır; okuyucuya bilimsel makalenin içeriğini ve önemini hatırlatırken, okuyucuya kapanış sağlar. Bunu, makalenin daha büyük resmini görmek için ayrıntılara girmeden gerçekleştirir.

Genel olarak, ana fikirleri ve görüşleri basitçe, kısa ve öz bir şekilde ifade eden, makalenin önermesini netleştirmeye yardımcı olmak için her şeyi bir araya getiren bir bölümdür.

This study set out to …
This paper has argued that …
This essay has discussed the reasons for …
In this investigation, the aim was to assess …
The aim of the present research was to examine …
The purpose of the current study was to determine …
The main goal of the current study was to determine …
This project was undertaken to design … and evaluate …
The present study was designed to determine the effect of …
The second aim of this study was to investigate the effects of …
Returning to the question posed at the beginning of this study, it is now possible to state that …

This study set out to
predict which …
establish whether …
determine whether …
develop a model for …
assess the effects of …
investigate impact of …
better understand the …
find a new method for …
evaluate how effective …
assess the feasibility of …
test the hypothesis that …
explore the influence of …
gain a better understanding of …
objectively measure and assess …
examine the relationship between …
compare the two ways of treating …
critically examine the ways in which …
evaluate a new method of measuring …
provide the first systematic account of …
understand the views and experiences of …
review in detail the available information on …
This study has examined
the role of …
the impact of …
the nature of …
the concept of …
the differences between …
the relationship between …
the peer reviewed literature on …
the factors which are thought to contribute to …

This study has identified …
This study has shown that …
The research has also shown that …
The second major finding was that …
These experiments confirmed that …
X made no significant difference to …
This study has found that generally …
The investigation of X has shown that …
The results of this investigation show that …
X, Y and Z emerged as reliable predictors of …
Multiple regression analysis revealed that the …
The most obvious finding to emerge from this study is that …
The relevance of X is clearly supported by the current findings.
One of the more significant findings to emerge from this study is that …

In general, therefore, it seems that …
The results of this study indicate that …
These findings suggest that in general …
The findings of this study suggest that …
Taken together, these results suggest that …
An implication of this is the possibility that …
The evidence from this study suggests that …
Overall, this study strengthens the idea that …
The current data highlight the importance of …
The findings of this research provide insights for …
The results of this research support the idea that …
These data suggest that X can be achieved through …
The theoretical implications of these findings are unclear.
The principal theoretical implication of this study is that …
This study has raised important questions about the nature of …
The following conclusions can be drawn from the present study …
Taken together, these findings suggest a role for X in promoting Y.
The findings of this investigation complement those of earlier studies.
These findings have significant implications for the understanding of how …
Although this study focuses on X, the findings may well have a bearing on …
These findings raised important theoretical issues that have a bearing on the …

This thesis has provided a deeper insight into …
The contribution of this study has been to confirm …
Before this study, evidence of X was purely anecdotal.
This study provides the first comprehensive assessment of …
This work contributes to existing knowledge of X by providing …
This study establishes a quantitative framework for detecting …
This is the largest study so far documenting a delayed onset of …
The analysis of X undertaken here, has extended our knowledge of …
The empirical findings in this study provide a new understanding of …
This study has been one of the first attempts to thoroughly examine …
This paper contributes to recent historiographical debates concerning …
This study appears to be the first study to compare the experiences of …
The present study adds to the growing body of research that indicates …
The present study is the only empirical investigation into the impact of …
This approach will prove useful in expanding our understanding of how …
The study has gone some way towards enhancing our understanding of …
The study has confirmed the findings of Smith et al. (2001) which found that…
This new understanding should help to improve predictions of the impact of …
This is the first report on X from a nationally representative cohort of patients.
The methods used for this X may be applied to other Xs elsewhere in the world.
These findings will be of broad use to the scientific and biomedical communities.
The X that we have identified therefore assists in our understanding of the role of …
This is the first study of substantial duration which examines associations between …
The findings from this study make several contributions to the current literature. First,…
These findings contribute in several ways to our understanding of X and provide a basis for further
research.

These findings
illustrate how …
could be used to help …
are important because …
are particularly relevant for …
provide insights into whether …
enhance our understanding of …
provide additional evidence for …
will help other researchers design …
highlight the potential usefulness of …
add to a growing body of literature on …
provide strong empirical confirmation that …
represent a major breakthrough in the way …
provide important insights into the role of …
make several contributions to the current literature.
are relevant to both practitioners and policy-makers.
This research / The present study
extends our knowledge of …
has demonstrated, for the first time, that …
will serve as a base for future studies and …
should prove to be particularly valuable to …
makes several noteworthy contributions to …
has offered a framework for the exploration of …
has provided additional evidence with respect to …
has several practical applications. Firstly, it points to …
has shed a contemporary light on the contentious issue of …
confirms previous findings and contributes additional evidence that suggests …
This is the first study
to identify …
to show that …
to investigate …
to test the effects of …
to firmly establish that …
to provide evidence for …
to reveal the presence of …
to investigate the effect of …
to use objective measures to …
to report an association between …
to integrate modelling approaches intended to …
that has used …
that has found …
that has revealed …
that has measured …
that has presented evidence for …
that has investigated the effects of …
that has documented the impact of …
that has evaluated the effectiveness of …
that has shown a clear-cut positive effect of …

Notwithstanding these limitations, the study suggests that …
Whilst this study did not confirm X, it did partially substantiate …
Despite its exploratory nature, this study offers some insight into …
Although the current study is based on a small sample of participants, the findings suggest …

A limitation of this study is that …
Being limited to X, this study lacks …
The major limitation of this study is the …
This study was limited by the absence of …
Thirdly, the study did not evaluate the use of …
The generalizability of these findings is limited …
The scope of this study was limited in terms of …
The study is limited by the lack of information on …
The most important limitation lies in the fact that …
A limitation of using this kind of data is that it precludes …
Study limitations make an overall conclusion about X extremely difficult.
Finally, a number of important limitations need to be considered. First, …
The findings in this report are subject to at least three limitations. First, …
However, these findings are limited by the use of a cross sectional design.
The principal limitation of this analysis was the variance in the design of …
This limitation means that study findings need to be interpreted cautiously.
With regard to the research methods, some limitations need to be acknowledged.
The generalizability of these results is subject to certain limitations. For instance, …
The present study was subject to a number of potential methodological weaknesses.
Several limitations to this pilot study need to be acknowledged. The sample size is …
The project was limited in several ways. First, the project used a convenience sample that …
The lack of X in the sample adds further caution regarding the generalizability of these findings.

This / The current / The present
study / research / investigation
was limited by …
has only examined …
has not been able to establish …
has only considered the context of …
has not been able to confirm earlier …
was unable to analyze these variables.
was not specifically designed to evaluate factors related to …
Another source of uncertainty
is / has been
the role of …
the estimate for …
the assumption that …
the variation of X over time.
associated with changes in …
the possibility of measurement errors in …

X makes these findings less generalisable to …
It is unfortunate that the study did not include …
The main weakness of this study was the paucity of …
Since the study was limited to X, it was not possible to ..
An additional uncontrolled factor is the possibility that …
It was not possible to assess X; therefore, it is unknown if …
An issue that was not addressed in this study was whether…
An arguable weakness is the arbitrariness in our definition of …
A number of caveats need to be noted regarding the present study.
The responses relating to X were subjective and were therefore susceptible to recall bias.
The sample was nationally representative of X but would tend to miss people who were …
One source of weakness in this study which could have affected the measurements of X was …
With a small sample size, caution must be applied, as the findings might not be transferable to …
Although the study has successfully demonstrated that …, it has certain limitations in terms of …

A key strength of the present study was the …
The main strength of this study is the exclusion of …
One strength of this study is the high rate of follow-up, …
The key strengths of this study are its long duration and …
Although the findings should be interpreted with caution, this study has several strengths …
One of the strengths of this study is that it represents a comprehensive examination of the whole …

The question raised by this study is …
More research using controlled trials is needed to …
What is now needed is a cross-national study involving …
More broadly, research is also needed to determine …
This research has thrown up many questions in need of further investigation.


It would be interesting to assess the effects of …
It is recommended that further research be undertaken in the following areas:
It would be interesting to compare experiences of individuals within the same …
It is suggested that the association of these factors is investigated in future studies.


A further study could assess the long-term effects of …
Further work needs to be done to establish whether …
Further studies need to be carried out in order to validate …
Further experimental investigations are needed to estimate …
Further studies regarding the role of X would be worthwhile/interesting.
Further investigation and experimentation into X is strongly recommended.

Further research
might explore …
could usefully explore how …
should focus on determining …
is required to determine whether …
in this field would be of great help in …
should be carried out to establish the …
should be undertaken to explore how …
on these questions would be a useful way of …
needs to examine more closely the links between X and Y.
could also be conducted to determine the effectiveness of …
Further
work is needed to fully understand the implications of …
research is required to establish the therapeutic efficiency of …
modelling work will have to be conducted in order to determine …
experiments, using a broader range of Xs, could shed more light on …
research in other Xs is, therefore, an essential next step in confirming …

A future study investigating X would be very interesting.
In terms of directions for future research, further work could …
In the future, it will be important to explore the potential use of …
Another possible area of future research would be to investigate why …
A number of possible future studies using the same experimental set up are apparent.

Future studies should
include …
focus on …
target specific …
clarify whether …
attempt to identify …
assess the impact of …
explore the effects of …
seek to minimize bias by …
investigate the degree to which …
concentrate on the investigation of …
address the questions raised by this research.
More research
is required / is needed
to account for …
in order to determine which …
to determine the efficacy and safety of …
to examine the long-term efficacy and safety of …
to better understand when implementation ends and …
to develop a deeper understanding of the relationships between …
Further
research is / studies are
needed / required
to better understand
why …
the nature of …
the causes of …
the impact of …
the reasons for …
the influence of …
the extent to which …
the role that X plays in …
how X is associated with …
the risks associated with …
the underlying causes of …
the possible link between …
the relationship between …
the discrepancies between …
the mechanisms underlying …
the effectiveness and safety of …
the complex linkages between …
the complex interaction between …
the complex association between …

The study should be repeated using …
This would be a fruitful area for further work.
Several questions still remain to be answered.
A natural progression of this work is to analyze …
Considerably more work will need to be done to determine …
The precise mechanism of X in insects remains to be elucidated.
These findings provide the following insights for future research: …
Large randomized controlled trials could provide more definitive evidence.
A greater focus on X could produce interesting findings that account more for …
The issue of X is an intriguing one which could be usefully explored in further research.
If the debate is to be moved forward, a better understanding of X needs to be developed.
I suggest that before X is introduced, a study similar to this one should be carried out on …
More information on X would help us to establish a greater degree of accuracy on this matter.

Other types of X could include: a), b) …
Greater efforts are needed to ensure …
There is, therefore, a definite need for …
A second broad recommendation is that …
Provision of X will enhance Y and reduce Z.
Another important practical implication is that …
Moreover, more X should be made available to …
The challenge now is to fabricate Xs that contain …
Unless governments adopt X, Y will not be attained.
These findings suggest several courses of action for …
A reasonable approach to tackle this issue could be to …
This particular research finding also points to the need for …
Continued efforts are needed to make X more accessible to …
These findings have implications within the clinical setting for …
The findings of this study have a number of practical implications.
There are a number of important changes which need to be made.
Management to enhance bumble-bee populations might involve …
This study suggests that X should be avoided by people who are prone to …
A key policy priority should therefore be to plan for the long-term care of …
This information can be used to develop targetted interventions aimed at …
Taken together, these findings do not support strong recommendations to …
Ensuring appropriate systems, services and support for X should be a priority for …
The findings of this study have a number of important implications for future practice.
An implication of these findings is that both X and Y should be taken into account when …

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